Assignment 1 Part A: Portfolio
The portfolio is going to explore the key concepts in the chapter “Event impacts and legacies” of Allen et al (2011). There are some key events impacts categories, those categories are social and culture, political, environmental, and tourism and economic (Allen et al, 2011). Allen et al (2011) indicate that events could cause unintended results, and it could be two sides which are positive and negative. Events’ positive impacts are increasing community involved, raising community pride, attracting tourists, creating pleasing environments and increase economic. However, events can also bring the negative impacts at the same time, which include increased road accident, bad behaviors of crowed, promote aggression on political aspect, and environmental damage. (Allen et al, 2011).
Allen et al (2011) indicates that events have social and culture influence on participants of events and host community. For example, events cause intense community pride of Geelong’s citizens due to wining the AFL Premiership. In addition, a shared experience is also brought by events which has been proved by 20th Auckland International Cultural Festival (2019). According to 20th Auckland International Cultural Festival (2019), this event brings delicious flavors, dance and music to Auckland, people enjoy the food from different countries, experience 56 countries’ dancing and music. This event is significant for Auckland developing strong cultural ties with other countries, such as China, Spain and Japan so on. Besides, the event helps Auckland breaking the cultural boundaries with other countries and gathering people who with different backgrounds. Furthermore, events can also contribute on increasing community participation. (Allen et al, 2011). Allen et al (2011) indicates that temporary inconvenience and disruption could be put up because communities often value ‘feel good’ of events. Therefore, events not only have positive impacts but also negative impacts. According to Allen et al (2011), larger scale of events will be having greater possibility for things go wrong. Therefore, negative impacts come up. For example, in 2001, a young rock fan’s death at Sydney’s the Big Day Out music festival. Besides, in 2008, a competitor’s death in the Finke Desert Race south of Alice Springs. All of these incidents are not only influence badly on the event participants but also the event stakeholders and the host communities.
Furthermore, Allen et al (2011) indicates that an event’s unique characteristics is the host environment, which means that the environment is vital for events. For example, creating an aesthetically pleasing environment is focused when promoting Sydney’s Darling Harbor. Besides, host environments should be taken care and protected. (Allen et al, 2011). Meanwhile, sustainability should be taken into consideration when hosting an event. NZ festival (2014) has proved it. According to NZ festival (2014), Splore became the first NZ festival which won an international ‘A Greener Festival Award’. Usually, people would use single serve cups during events, which is make bad impact on the host environment. Reusable cups had been used instead of single serve cups in this event, which preventing number of single serve cups going to landfill. In addition, there was 25% reduction in vehicles which was reducing the greenhouse gas emissions in this event. (NZ festival, 2014). These actions are not only followed sustainability principle but also reduce the environmental damage. Allen et al (2011) believe that event is not only making profit but also can raise the people’s environmentally aware. NZ festival (2014) stated that sustainability generates positive impacts to the event participants. There was less rubbish because everyone respected the host environment, which means people’s aware of protecting environment has been shown. Thus, if there are things might can cause bad effects on the environment, people can take alternatives which have less impacts on the environment.
As mentioned above, events’ impacts are obvious, which are formed into three types, that are social and culture and environmental, same as what Allen et al (2011) discussed. Tourism can contribute on the economy of the country. Meanwhile, working opportunities could be increasing with the increasing of the number of visitors. In the end of these, more profit will be made. Tourism is linked with economic. However, those accidents and bad experience of visitors will also damage the country’s tourism and influence the economic in the end. As the example of Auckland International Culture Festival, events can also have the ability to enhance friendly cooperation all over the world. All in all, it is certain that events have two sides impacts on host community which are negative and positive. And those impacts influence in these aspects which are social and culture, political, environmental and tourism and economic.
The aim of this portfolio is to summaries chapter 1 of Greg Richards and Robert Palmer’s book “Eventful Cities: culture management and urban revitalization”, and also analyze the ATEED’s Major Events strategy documents. Meanwhile, find the things in common of these two readings. Cities have taken advantage of cultural events for achieving the goals on economic, social and political and cultural. Meanwhile, for meeting and following the globalization’s development, cities have been using their cultural heritage, talent, and history. All of these contribute on cities forming its civic identity through being eventful. Therefore, the key component is cultural events in the form of festivals and shows for developing by cities. According to Richards and Palmer (2010), every city can properly plan, produce and execute events. Culture is becoming the component and center of cities that symbolizes the evolution of the economy and the experience economy. Some have a name of “eventful cities”, which attract tourists and develop their own tourism. Richards and Palmer (2010) indicates that cultural events take an main role of cities’ economic and essential for developing cities.
Richards and Palmer (2010) discussed types of cities, but for them, the most important thing is that cities are being developing by managing cities, facing the problems of society, providing some ideas of city creating and projecting cultural designs. Events can create kinds of advantages for different types of cities, those advantages can be seemed into different aspects such as life quality, society and also partnerships. In addition, events might contribute on city’s intangible culture. (Richards and Palmer, 2010). The benefits for holding events in cities are providing space and time for people celebrating diversity, at the same time, experiencing the co-presence of people with different backgrounds. What’s more, animation is strong needed because the pleasing atmosphere and the environment provides good feelings for people which makes cities more attractive and bring investments.
ATEED has similar approach with Richards and Palmer (2010) toward to cities. the approach describes events are the main stanchion of economy of the tourism host cities. ATEED helps to build the image of cities in the mind of tourists by holding events. The main purpose of ATEED is raising the quality of jobs in the events’ host community for supporting local. ATEED hold events which are significant and bring benefits. For example, ATEED (2019) states that tourism contribute on develop the local economy, because tourists need to purchase food, beverage, accommodation and activities when they come to visit. It creates more working opportunities. Furthermore, through holding events, ATEED builds a perfect image of this place for being a destination. In addition, these events have the community’s engagement that people would like to share interests and experience. Nevertheless, events also raise the consciousness of environmental threats.
While reading “why cities need to be eventul” and ATEED, people will realize that the concepts of them are same. Both Richards and Palmer (2010) and ATEED believe that the living quality, employment and community engagement will be improved by tourism. Although the first reading focuses more on the aspect of acquiring personal experience, ATEED’s purpose is introducing cultural world on the stage of the whole world, which create experiences for people as possible as they can. However, ATEED and Richard and Palmer have the common opinion which is a city has to use their culture component to attract the attentions from all over the world. Their purpose is making the cities become eventful cities, which can acquire benefits of society, political, and economy by using global resources. Finally, readers can know the closely relationship between these articles because they both discussed the theme of “how can make cities eventful”.
In this portfolio, two chapters of Jo Mackella’s book “Event Audience and Expectations” will be analyzed. The chapters which are analyzed are chapter 2 and chapter 6. The analysis’s purpose is to compare and impact framework. In addition, how this two chapters will be related with the study of Allen et al (2011).
In chapter 2, Mackellar (2013) believes that psycho/social theories can explain how and why people behavior in a certain way, and it can be explored to explain audiences travel to attend events. Meanwhile, the behaviors can be influenced by cultural, political and society. Mackellar (2013) indicates that the visitors to events and festivals are attracted for meeting their psychological needs, in which are shelter, food and water. Afterwards, people will seek for higher needs such as be safe and enjoy the friendships. In the end, people will seek for self-development as people get older. However, events for young people may be more focus on safety and social needs. On the other side, Mackellar (2013) indicates that events are undoubtedly a social phenomenon which attract people to be part of a social experience. Events can also promote the development of tourism due to the audiences from other places. The audience of social experience can be sort of different types: mass, special interest, community, incidental and media audiences. Mass audiences at large events are willing to join with others for enjoying the excitement of the events. Community audiences share an experience which makes them feel as communitas. People have a good time on events by sharing their interests and a strong cultural connection. In addition, Mackellar (2013) also indicates that audiences rarely return to events every year for meeting same psycho/social needs. Therefore, it’s very important for event organizers to think of the visitors’ psycho/social needs.
According to Mackellar (2013), for making sure the succeed of events, event managers have the responsibility to consider the potential risks and design the strategies to deal with those risks due to audience’s bad actions. In chapter 6, Mackellar (2013) states that audience behaviors can be seem as two parts which are individual behaviors and crowd behaviors. Normally, individual’s bad behaviors are related with excessive alcohol or drug use or errant fan behaviors.
These individual’s bad behaviors can cause death. For example, an intoxicated woman who was death due to fell from the tower’s top in Roskilde Festival in Denmark in 2011. In addition, the cases of drugs overdo also have been found in many festivals such as V festival, Rockness and Identity Festival. Furthermore, at some sports events, lots of incidents due to personal bad behaviors. Lots of people scream and run because of excessive emotions, which cause injuries to others. The individual’s behaviors could become a factor which makes competitions interrupted. For example, a man pushed the leader in 2004 Olympic Games. Due to these cases, in recent times, event organizers banned the sales of alcohol and take drugs. The aim of these actions is ensuring everyone has the equal chance to enjoy the events without those people who might influence people’s event experience due to their bad behaviors. these aspects indicate that the chapter 6 relates with the event impact framework.
On the other side, crowd behaviors are hard to managed, which requires procedures and policies. Human behave like animals in a crowd, follow others in lines. One small group’s actions will be influence quickly on other people to copy their behaviors which can cause the bad results. for example, there were nine people dead due to the crowd went to the stage and crush the audience at the front seats in the 2000 Roskilde Festival. In addition, dangers happen when a group of people walk toward the entrance. Therefore, measures have to be taken for managing people. For example, event organizers have to consider about the venue capacity.
Finally, it will be clear to see how the chapters are related to each other. In chapter 2, it focuses on explain why and how audience behavior with psycho/ social theories. In chapter 6, it focuses on how to manage people. in both two chapters Mackellar (2013) discussed the necessity of managing people in order to bring the positive impacts to events. These things have been found that relate with event impact framework, and these things will be influencing on the host community, culture, economy and tourism which as same focuses of Allen et al (2011).
Allen, J. et al. (2011). Festival & Special Event Management. Milton, Australia: John Wiley & Sons (Chapter 3, ‘Event Impacts and Legacies’).
ATEED. (2018). Auckland’s major events strategy. Retrieved from https://www.aucklandnz.com/ sites/build_auckland/files/media- library/documents/Auckland-Major-Events- Strategy-October-2018.pdf
Dance all around the world at 20th Auckland International Cultural Festival (2019, March 11). 20th Auckland International Cultural Festival. Retrieved from https://ourauckland.aucklandcouncil.govt.nz/articles/news/2019/03/dance all-around-the-world-at-2019-cultural-festival/
First NZ festival to win Greener Festival award (2014, October 24). NZ Festival. Retrieved from http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/CU1410/S00504/first-nz-festival-to-win- greener-festival-award.htm
Mackellar, J. (2013). Event audiences and expectations. New York: Routledge.
Richards, G., & Palmer, R. (2010). Eventful Cities: Cultural Management and Urban Revitalization. Newyork: Routledge.
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