- “Narwhals who eat lots of halibut have longer tusks than narwhals who don’t eat much halibut.”
1A. For 3 marks, state the three causal model types that can explain the correlation. Use X,Y, and Z in your answer. Number them 1, 2, and 3.
1B. For 6 marks, for each of the causal models 1, 2, and 3 that you listed above, write a complete sentence, describing the causal model using words from the quoted sentence rather than using X’s and Y’s).
1C. For 4 marks, describe a specific third factor that might explain the correlation and how could it explain it? (it’s ok if you already mentioned it above)
- For each of the two possibilities for the null hypothesis (it is true or it is false),there are two possible outcomes for a statistical test, yielding four possibilities in total (see the first pre-recorded video of Modules:Wk 9).
List four terms for these four possibilities (4 marks)
- To get a ticket for that festival, you must test negative on a COVID test.
3A. For 4 marks, does the sentence mean that something is necessary to get a ticket for that festival? If so, what?
3B. For 4 marks, does the sentence imply something is sufficient to get a ticket for that festival? If so, what?
4. Marriage Makes You Happy
The secret to happiness is assessed by a recent study. A team of researchers analyzed data from over 300,000 people to uncover the keys to happiness across the human life span. Interestingly, they found being married to be a stronger predictor of happiness than whether someone was having sex regularly. “For all measures and regions, married people had higher subjective well-being than unmarried people,” state the researchers. “The effects were larger than for having regular sex.”
4A For 4 marks, describe the causal model the above passage suggests in a complete sentence using wors from the passage (no “X”s or “Y”s or “Z”s).
4B. For 4 marks, is the study likely to be an experiment or an observational study? Why?
4C. For 6 marks, using words from the passage rather than “X” and “Y”, describe an alternative causal model that could plausibly explain the finding.
- If you have a chit, you will get the vegetarian dinner.
The above sentence implies something about necessary and sufficient conditions for getting the vegetarian dinner. For 4 marks, rewrite this sentence, using the words necessary and/or sufficient in the sentence.
- People who watch old TV shows have a higher annual death rate than people who don’t. A website reporting on the research implies that people should stop watching old TV shows, as that will reduce their risk of death.
6A. For 4 marks, without using jargon such as ‘X’ and ‘Y’, describe an alternative causal model that might plausibly explain the correlation. Explain why your model is plausible.
6B. For 6 marks, invent a research study designed to test whether watching old TV shows elevates the risk of death. Describe the measures and other variables of the study.
- What statistical technique was described in class as sometimes useful to separate out the effects of multiple measured variables? (2 marks)
- If you wear a bandanna for six months, you will get brachymitris, but I’m not going to wear a bandanna. That’s why I’m not going to get brachymitris.
8A. For 3 marks, rewrite the above as a syllogism in standard form, labelling the premises and conclusion.
8B. For 4 marks, is the conclusion suppositionally inescapable? Why or why not?
8C. For 2 marks, is the conclusion inescapable? Why or why not?
- Online dating profiles that mention bowling get fewer contacts from the opposite sex than do profiles that don’t mention bowling. John Smith concludes that a mention of bowling makes the opposite sex less interested.
For 8 marks, describe an experiment to test Smith’s conclusion.
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