本次澳洲代写主要为心理学相关的2000字lab report

1.指示
实验室报告及其相关活动的主要目的是帮助您学习如何使用定量研究技能来解决研究问题(LO 4&5)。
该报告最初包括邀请您参加有关性格如何与冒险倾向之间关系的简短在线实验。接下来,此实验生成的数据将以电子表格的形式进行组织,供每个人使用。有关此实验以及如何参与的详细信息可以在本书后面的“BART实验信息”一章中找到。
您的任务将涉及分析此数据集并编写有关此实验及其结果的报告。
定量方法研讨会将教您分析数据所需的统计原理,而您的实验室课程将进一步帮助您确定如何分析数据和编写实验室报告。
此外,当前文档中还提供了与该报告相关的相关科学文献的指针,并且在Moodle上还提供了有关如何编写好的实验室报告的进一步建议。但是,根据我们的经验,积极主动地独立寻求信息的学生(例如,通过他们自己的关于性格与冒险精神之间的关系的私人文献综述)并且长时间工作以准备好信息的学生获得了很高的评价。好的实验室报告。
2.本报告的一般主题:人格与承担风险
当面对1%至3%死亡率的大流行病时,为什么有些人在家里设路障,而另一些人却知道存在风险而高兴地参加大型聚会?人们在人生中愿意承担多少风险可能彼此截然不同:冒险是一种行为倾向,可以从极端的冒险形式到相反的极端风险规避。例如,高风险承担者可能会赌博巨额他们无法负担的钱,无保护的性行为或在酒精影响下开车等行为。相比之下,规避风险的人可能永远不会投资他们的钱,因为他们太害怕损失其中的任何钱(例如,他们太害怕承担抵押贷款)。其他一些人可能非常厌恶风险,以至于他们拒绝乘坐飞机飞行。
冒险是人类生活中固有的。在几乎每天的基础上,我们需要做出决定,其中许多决定可能会带来一些不确定性(例如,在工作日结束时开车回家有卷入交通事故的风险,但这是必要的风险) 。我们不能过着完全无风险的生活,如果我们始终接受不计后果的风险,我们就无法生存。因此,健康,幸福的生活需要在冒险和规避风险之间保持良好的平衡。
心理学家已经尝试了很长时间,以了解是什么使我们对风险的厌恶程度降低了。风险承担是生物学,心理学和神经科学领域非常重要的研究领域,因为已经对风险承担的神经基础进行了大量研究(例如Chopra等人2019,Rao等人,2008,2018)。 )。冒险倾向也与心理健康有关。例如,人们认为焦虑可以与风险规避联系在一起(Charpentier et al。,2017)。
为了更好地理解冒险行为,研究人员长期以来一直对人格差异对冒险的潜在影响感兴趣。如今,个性已被视为一种长期倾向,可以部分解释我们的日常行为。例如,如果某人性格外向,那么此人一生将倾向于在社交上外向。从神经生物学的角度越来越了解人格差异(例如,一些人认为外向性与大脑中的多巴胺能系统有关,Depue&Collins,1999)。如今,关于人格差异的主要理论框架是人格的五因素模型,也被称为“大五人”模型,我将让您通过自己的阅读来发现它(Costa&McCrae,1992; McCrae&Costa,1990; Goldberg ,1990,1992)。
大五模型的一个重要方面是外向型-内向型人格。这种人格维度很重要,因为它可以解释广泛的社会行为,而且还可以预测心理健康问题(Jylhä&Isometsä,2006)。为什么将外向内向与冒险相联系?冒险精神被认为与另一个人格维度-冲动性(Lejuez et al。,2002; Eysenck&Eysenck,1977)密切相关,而后者又与外向性-内向性相关。更具体地说,冲动的“寻求感觉”方面与外向性密切相关(Whiteside&Linam,2001)。因此,您要参加的研究的目的是找出“五巨头”的内向内向维度是否与冒险行为的倾向有关。

1. Instructions
The main objective of the lab report and its associated activities is to help you learn how to use quantitative research skills to solve a research question (LOs 4&5).
The report initially involves inviting you to take part in a brief online experiment on how personality relates to risk-taking propensity. Next, the data generated by this experiment will be organized in a spreadsheet that will be made available to each of you. Details about this experiment and how to take part can be found later in this book under the chapter called “BART Experiment Information”.
Your task will involve analyzing this dataset and writing a report regarding this experiment and its results.
The Quantitative Methods Seminars will teach you statistical principles needed to analyze the data, and your lab classes will further help you in figuring out how to analyze the data and write the lab report.
In addition, pointers towards relevant scientific literature related to the report are provided in the current document, and further advice on how to write a good lab report is provided on Moodle. However, in our experience, high marks are achieved by students who have both proactively and independently looked for information (e.g. through their own private literature review of the topic of how personality relates to risk-taking) and who have worked long hours preparing a very good lab report.
2. The general topic of this report: Personality and Risk-Taking
When facing a pandemic with a 1 to 3% mortality rate, why do some people barricade themselves at home while others happily join large gatherings knowing that there are risks? People can be very different from each other regarding how much risk they are willing to take in their lives: Risk-taking is a behavioural disposition that can vary from extreme forms of risk-taking to the opposite extreme of risk aversion. For instance, high risk-takers may gamble huge sums of money that they can’t afford, have unprotected sex or drive under the influence of alcohol, amongst other behaviours. In contrast, people who are risk-averse may never invest their money because they are too afraid of losing any of it (e.g. they would be too afraid of taking a mortgage). Some other people may be so risk-averse that they refuse to fly on an airplane.
Taking risks is inherent to human life. On an almost daily basis, we need to make decisions, and many of these decisions might entail some uncertainties (e.g. driving back home at the end of a work day involves risks of getting involved in a car accident, but it is a necessary risk). We cannot live an entirely riskless life, and we can’t survive if we always accept inconsiderate risks. Therefore a healthy, happy life requires a fine balance between risk-taking and risk-aversion.
Psychologists have been trying for a long time to understand what makes us more or less averse to risks. Risk-taking is a very important field of research in Biological, Psychology and Neuroscience, as a significant amount of research has been done on the neural substrates of risk-taking (e.g. Chopra et al. 2019, Rao et al., 2008, 2018). Risk-taking dispositions are also related to mental health. For instance, it is believed that anxiety can be linked to risk aversion (Charpentier et al., 2017).
To better understand risk-taking behaviours, researchers have been for a long time interested in the potential impact of personality differences on risk-taking. Personality is nowadays seen as a long-term disposition that can partly explain our daily behaviours. For instance, if someone is extroverted, then this person will tend to be socially outgoing for most of her life. Personality differences are increasingly understood from a neurobiological perspective (e.g. some think that extraversion is linked to the dopaminergic system in the brain, Depue & Collins, 1999). The main theoretical framework for personality differences nowadays is the Five Factor model of personality, also known as the “Big Five” model, which I will let you discover by your own readings (Costa & McCrae, 1992; McCrae & Costa, 1990; Goldberg, 1990, 1992).
An important dimension of the Big Five model is the Extraversion-introversion personality dimension. This personality dimension is important because it can explain a wide range of social behaviours, but also because it can predict mental health issues (Jylhä & Isometsä, 2006). Why would extraversion-introversion be linked to Risk-Taking? Risk-Taking is thought to be strongly linked to another personality dimension, impulsivity (Lejuez et al., 2002; Eysenck & Eysenck, 1977) which in turn is linked to extraversion-introversion. More specifically, the “sensation-Seeking” aspect of impulsivity is strongly related to extraversion (Whiteside & Linam, 2001). Therefore, the goal of the study in which you are taking part is to find out if the extraversion-introversion dimension of the Big Five is related to the propensity of risk-taking behaviour.


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