1. 考虑两个数据集。在数据集 A 中，我们有消费支出、收入和

(a) 两个数据集都是时间序列数据的例子。
(b) 两个数据集都是横截面数据的示例。
(c) 两个数据集都是面板数据的例子。
(d) 数据集 A 是面板数据的一个例子，数据集 B 是时间序列数据的一个例子。
(e) 数据集 A 是横截面数据的示例，数据集 B 是时间序列的示例

(1 分)

2、下列说法不正确的是？
(a) 随机对照试验是衡量因果关系的最佳手段。
(b) 在预测建模中，用作预测变量的变量不需要导致

(c) 相关性不是因果关系。
(d) 时间序列观测值总是 i.i.d。
(e) 时间序列数据是有序的，而横截面数据则不是。
(1 分)

Question 1 (15 marks)
This question has 15 multiple choice questions. Makesurethatyouclearlyspecifythequestion
number and only one letter for each multiple choice question in your answer book (not on the
question sheet).
1. Consider two datasets. In dataset A, we have data on consumption expenditure, income and
hours of work for every year from 2000 to 2017 for a group of individuals who were randomly
selected in the year 2000. In data set B, we have data on consumption per capita, income
per capita and unemployment rate for Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, New Zealand, Thailand
and Vietnam for every year from 2000 to 2017.
(a) Both datasets are examples of time series data.
(b) Both datasets are examples of cross-sectional data.
(c) Both datasets are examples of panel data.
(d) Dataset A is an example of panel data, dataset B is an example of time series data.
(e) Dataset A is an example of cross-sectional data, dataset B is an example of time-series
data.
(1 mark)

2. Which of the following statements is NOT true?
(a) Randomised controlled trials are the best means for measuring causal relationships.
(b) In predictive modelling, the variables that are used as predictors need not cause the
variable that they try to predict.
(c) Correlation is not causation.
(d) Time series observations are always i.i.d.
(e) Time series data are ordered whereas cross section data are not.
(1 mark)

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